Widowhood Resilience Scale (WRS)

Widowhood Resilience Scale (WRS) is a 25-item measure of the attributes of resilience that impact positive adaptation after conjugal loss. This scale covers 6 domains of resilience: social support, integration, living in the present, helping others, outlook and agency.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male, Transgender

Age Range: Adults


Please indicate to what extent each item reflects your personal experience over the last 6 weeks. Mark one response for each item.

1. I am comfortable asking for help with I need it.
2. I have integrated the love of my late partner with my current life and relationships.
3. I laugh at least once every day.
4. I can sit with someone else in pain.
5. I have a fulfilling social life.
6. I have found ways to honor my deceased partner.
7. I can picture a positive and happy future.
8. I have blended my past life with my present life.
9. I can have fun in the moment.
10. I am caring and compassionate.
11. I can find support for things I need.
12. I can make a decision and follow through.
13. I feel confident I can learn how to do things my partner used to do.
14. I can find humor in life.
15. I use my experiences to help others.
16. I belong to a strong supportive community.
17. I have created a new life that honors the past.
18. I can face my problems head-on instead of ignoring them.
19. I have goals I am working toward.
20. I trust my gut.
21. I have a strong sense of who I am, independent of my late partner.
22. I like the person I am now.
23. I can feel joy for others when something good happens to them.
24. I don't let others' expectations determine how I grieve.
25. I find there are times when I can live in the moment.

Response Options:
Strongly disagree - 1
Disagree - 2
Neither agree nor disagree - 3
Agree - 4
Strongly agree - 5

Scoring Procedures

Items are divided into the following factors: Social support (1, 5, 11, 16)
Integration (2, 6, 8, 17)
Living in the present (3, 9, 14, 23, 25)
Helping others (4, 10, 15)
Outlook (7, 19, 22)
Agency (12, 13, 18, 20, 21, 24)

Items in each subscale (factor) are summed or averaged. The subscale each item belongs to should not be displayed when administered to respondents.

Original Citation

West, C. L., Dreeben, S. J., & Busing, K. (2021). The Development of the Widowhood Resilience Scale. Omega-Journal of Death and Dying, 83(4), 958-975.

Psychometric Score

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Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


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