Gender Ideology Scale

The Gender Ideology Scale is a 15-item self-reported measure to assess quality of care in family planning services. The scale assess service clients’ and service providers’ attitudes toward men’s and women’s roles in the family planning domain in rural China. The scale contains two subscales: Realistic and Strategic Ideologies.


Geographies Tested: China

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


Realistic Ideology
1. Contraception should only be women's responsibility, and have nothing to do with men*
2. Gynecological diseases are women's problems, and should not involve men*
3. Women should not make excessive demands of their husbands in sexual life*
4. It is shameful for menopausal women to consult about sexual issues*
5. Doctors' discriminatory attitudes against unmarried pregnant girls in medical treatment are acceptable*
6. It is worth paying the social maintenance fee to give birth to a boy outside the birth quota*
7. It is not worth paying the social maintenance fee to give birth to a girl outside the birth quota*
8. In order to prevent transmission and spread of STDs, female STD patients' personal information should be open to the public*

Strategic Ideology
9. A husband should be cooperative and supportive when his wife receives treatment for gynecological diseases such as reproductive tract diseases
10. The husband should accompany his wife when she receives an induced abortion problems
11. The husband should be cooperative and supportive to help his wife deal with menopausal problems
12. A wife should be considerate of her husband when he has a disorder of sexual function due to pressure from work or other things
13. The husband should help his wife enjoy a satisfying sexual life
14. Men should acquire as much sexual knowledge as they can
15. Women should acquire as much sexual knowledge as they can

Response Options:
Strongly agree - 1
Agree - 2
Neither agree nor disagree - 3
Disagree – 4
Strongly disagree - 5

*Items are reverse scored

Scoring Procedures

Item scores are summed to create a final score. Items from the Realistic Ideology subscale are reverse scored so that higher scores on the total score reflect a more gender equitable ideology.

Original Citation

Yang, X., Li, S., & Feldman, M. W. (2013). Development and validation of a gender ideology scale for family planning services in rural China. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e59919.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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