World Values Survey Wave 6 2010-2012: Justifiable Actions

The Justifiable Actions measure includes a single item from Wave 6 of the World Values Survey. The items asked participants to rank the justifiability of certain actions, such as falsely claiming government benefits, prostitution, and domestic violence. The World Values Survey consists of nationally representative surveys conducted in almost 100 countries, and was developed to help scientists and policy makers understand global changes in individuals’ beliefs, values and motivations.


Geographies Tested: Albania,Algeria,Andorra,Angola,Antigua and Barbuda,Argentina,Armenia,Australia,Austria,Azerbaijan,Bangladesh,Barbados,Belarus,Belgium,Belize,Bhutan,Bolivia,Bosnia and Herzegovina,Botswana,Brazil,Bulgaria,Burkina Faso,Burundi,Cambodia,Cameroon,Canada,Chad,Chile,China,Colombia,Democratic Republic of the Congo,Costa Rica,Cote d'Ivoire,Croatia,Cuba,Cyprus,Czech Republic,Denmark,Dominican Republic,East Timor Timor-Leste,Ecuador,Egypt,El Salvador,Equatorial Guinea,Eritrea,Estonia,Ethiopia,Finland,France,Georgia,Germany,Ghana,Greece,Guatemala,Guinea,Guinea-Bissau,Guyana,Haiti,Honduras,Hungary,Iceland,India,Indonesia,Iran,Iraq,Ireland,Israel,Italy,Jamaica,Japan,Jordan,Kazakhstan,Kenya,Korea, North,Korea, South,Kuwait,Kyrgyzstan,Laos,Latvia,Lebanon,Lesotho,Liberia,Libya,Liechtenstein,Lithuania,Luxembourg,Macedonia,Madagascar,Malawi,Malaysia,Mali,Malta,Mauritius,Mexico,Moldova,Monaco,Mongolia,Morocco,Mozambique,Myanmar (Burma),Namibia,Nepal,Netherlands,New Zealand,Nicaragua,Niger,Nigeria,Norway,Oman,Pakistan,Panama,Papua New Guinea,Paraguay,Peru,Philippines,Poland,Portugal,Qatar,Romania,Russia,Rwanda,Saudi Arabia,Senegal,Serbia,Seychelles,Sierra Leone,Singapore,Slovakia,Slovenia,Somalia,South Africa,Spain,Sri Lanka,Sudan,Suriname,Sweden,Switzerland,Syria,Taiwan,Tajikistan,Tanzania,Thailand,The Gambia,Togo,Trinidad and Tobago,Tunisia,Turkey,Turkmenistan,Uganda,Ukraine,United Arab Emirates,United Kingdom,United States of America,Uruguay,Uzbekistan,Venezuela,Vietnam,Yemen,Zambia

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


1. Please tell me for each of the following actions whether you think it can always be justified, never be justified, or something in between. (Read out and code one answer for each statement.)

  • Claiming government benefits to which you are not entitled
  • Avoiding a fare on public transport
  • Stealing property
  • Cheating on taxes if you have a chance
  • Someone accepting a bribe in the course of their duties
  • Homosexuality
  • Prostitution
  • Abortion
  • Divorce
  • Sex before marriage
  • Suicide
  • Euthanasia
  • For a man to beat his wife
  • Violence against other people

Response Options:
10-point scale from “Never justifiable” (1) to “Always justifiable” (10)

Scoring Procedures

Not Applicable

Original Citation

Inglehart, R., C. Haerpfer, A. Moreno, C. Welzel, K. Kizilova, J. Diez-Medrano, M. Lagos, P. Norris, E. Ponarin & B. Puranen et al. (eds.). (2014). WVS 2010-2012 Wave, revised master, June 2012.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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