Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ)

The Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ) is a 33-item measure of beliefs about menstruation, dealing with menstruation and effects on performance both among the respondents themselves and women in general. Items are separated into 5 subscales: 1) menstruation as a debilitating event, 2) menstruation as a bothersome event, 3) menstruation as a natural event, 4) anticipation and prediction of the onset of menstruation and 5) denial of any effect of menstruation.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Menstruation as a debilitating event
1. A woman's performance in sports is not affected negatively by menstruation.
2. Women are more tired than usual when they are menstruating.
3. I expect extra consideration from my friends when I am menstruating.
4. Menstruation can adversely affect my performance in sports.
5. I feel as fit during menstruation as I do during any other time of the month.
6. I don't allow the fact that I'm menstruating to interfere with my usual activities.
7. Avoiding certain activities during menstruation is often very wise.
8. I am more easily upset during my premenstrual or menstrual periods than at other times of the month.
9. I don't believe my menstrual period affects how well I do on intellectual tasks.
10. I realize that I cannot expect as much of myself during menstruation compared to the rest of the month.
11. Women just have to accept the fact that they may not perform as well when they are menstruating.

Menstruation as a bothersome event
12. Menstruation is something I just have to put up with.
13. In some ways I enjoy my menstrual periods.
14. Men have a real advantage in not having the monthly interruption of a menstrual period.
15. I hope it will be possible someday to get a menstrual period over within a few minutes.
16. The only thing menstruation is good for is to let me know I'm not pregnant.
17. Menstruation provides a way for me to keep in touch with my body.

Menstruation as a natural event
18. Menstruation is a reoccurring affirmation of womanhood.
19. Menstruation allows women to be more aware of their bodies.
20. Menstruation provides a way for me to keep in touch with my body.
21. Menstruation is an obvious example of the rhythmicity which pervades all of life.
22. The recurrent monthly flow of menstruation if an external indication of a woman's general good health.

Anticipation and prediction of the onset of menstruation
23. I can tell my period is approaching because of breast tenderness, backache, cramps, or other physical signs.
24. I have learned to anticipate my menstrual period by the mood changes which precede it.
25. My own moods are not influenced in any major way by the phase of my menstrual cycle.
26. I am more easily upset during my premenstrual or menstrual periods than at other times of the month.
27. Most women show a weight gain before or during menstruation.

Denial of any effect of menstruation
28. Cramps are bothersome only if one pays attention to them.
29. A woman who attributes her irritability to her approaching period is neurotic.
30. I barely notice the physiological effects of my menstrual periods.
31. Women who complain of menstrual distress are just using that as an excuse.
32. Premenstrual tensionirritability is all in a woman's head.
33. Most women make too much of the minor physiological effects of menstruation.

Response Options:
7-point Likert scale
Disagree strongly - 1
Agree strongly - 7

Scoring Procedures

The mean of each subscale is calculated.

Original Citation

Brooks-Gunn, J., & Ruble, D. N. (1980). The Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire. Psychosomatic medicine, 42(5), 503-512.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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