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Entrepreneurial Norms

The Entrepreneurial Norms Scale is a 22-item measure of social norms and attitudes that shape enterprising activity. A particular focus of this scale is to explore whether age has a significant influence on entrepreneurial intentions.

Categories

Geographies Tested: Finland

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults

Items:

Entrepreneurial intention
1. If you were to choose between running your own business and being employed by someone, what would you prefer?
2. If you were to choose between running your own business and being unemployed, what would you prefer?
3. How likely is it that you will start your own business?
4. When you retire, how likely is it that you will run your own business?

Response Options:
7-point visual Likert Scale

How much do you care what the following people would think if you strove to start your own business?

Subjective norm
5. I believe that my closest family members think that I should notshould start my own business and become an entrepreneur x motivation to comply.
6. I believe that my closest friends think that I should notshould start my own business and become an entrepreneur x motivation to comply.
7. I believe that my colleagues and people important to me think that I should notshould start my own business and become an entrepreneur x motivation to comply.

Response Options:
7-point visual Likert Scale

To what extend do you agree or disagree with the importance of the following items in terms of your working career?

Perceived behavioral control
8. For me starting my own firm and becoming an entrepreneur would be (very difficult-very easy).
9. If I wanted to, I could easily pursue a career as an entrepreneur.

Response Options:
7-point Likert scale
Very difficult - 1
Very easy - 7

Entrepreneurial Attitude
10. If I started my own business and became an entrepreneur, the chances of success would be (very low-very high).

Response Options:
7-point Likert scale
Very low - 1
Very high - 7

Age norm
11. One can very well become an entrepreneur after retiring.
12. In my opinion, a person of any age can start up in business.
13. There is no point in starting up in business when aged over 50.*

Authority and autonomy
14. I look for independence.
15. I want decision-making power.
16. I look for a position of authority.
17. I would like to be my own boss.

Self-realization
18. I would like to make use of my creativity.
I9. I would like to carry out my dreams.
20. I would like to create something new.

Economic opportunity
21. I would like a large proportion of my salary to be based on results.
22. I would like to be paid according to my achieve.

*Items are reverse coded.

Response Options:
7-point Likert scale
Definitely disagree - 1
Definitely agree - 7

Scoring Procedures

The Entrepreneurial Norms Scale includes five sub-scales: Entrepreneurial Intention, Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavioral Control, Age Norm, and Entrepreneurial Attitude. The scores from each sub-scale are averaged to create the Entrepreneurial Norms Scale.

Entrepreneurial Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Age Norm: The scores from these three sub-scales are each averaged to form the Entrepreneurial Norms Scale.

Subjective Norm: The Subjective Norm sub-scale is calculated by multiplying the 7-point Likert scale scores from belief statements and motivation to comply.

Entrepreneurial Attitude: The Entrepreneurial Intention sub-scale is calculated as an average of scores from three sub-scales, including Authority and Autonomy, Self-realization, and Economic Opportunity.

Original Citation

Kautonen, T., Tornikoski, E. T., & Kibler, E. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions in the Third Age: The impact of perceived age norms. Small Business Economics, 37(2), 219-234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-009-9238-y

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