Brief Interpersonal Reactivity Index (B-IRI)

The Brief Interpersonal Reactivity Index (B-IRI) is a 16-item adaptation of the 28-item Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980) that assesses an individual's disposition to empathic responsiveness to others. The brief measure contains four subscales: fantasy, empathic concern, perspective taking and personal distress.


Geographies Tested: Italy

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


1. I really get involved with the feelings of the characters in a novel.
2. After seeing a play or movie, I have felt as though I were one of the characters.
3. When I watch a good movie, I can very easily put myself in the place of a leading character.
4. When I am reading an interesting story or novel, I imagine how I would feel if the events in the story were happening to me.

Empathic concern
5. I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me.
6. When I see someone being taken advantage of, I feel kind of protective of them.
7. When I see someone being treated unfairly, I feel very much pity for them.
8. I would describe myself as a pretty soft-hearted person.

Perspective taking
9. I try to look everybody's side of a disagreement before I make a decision.
10. I sometimes try to understand my friends better by imagining how things look from their perspective.
11. When I'm upset at someone, I usually try to "put myself in his shoes" for a while.
12. Before criticizing somebody, I try to imagine how I would feel if I were in their place.

Personal distress
13. In emergency situations, I feel apprehensive and ill-at-ease.
14. Being in a tense emotional situation scares me.
15. I tend to lose control during emergencies.
16. When I see someone who badly needs help in an emergency, I go to pieces.

Response Options:
5-point Likert scale
Does not describe me at all - 1
Describes me very well - 5

Scoring Procedures

The mean of each subscale is calculated.

Original Citation

Ingoglia S., Lo Coco A., Albiero P. (2016). Development of a Brief Form of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (B-IRI). Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(5), 461–471.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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