Racial Cohesion Questionnaire (RCQ)

The Racial Cohesion Questionnaire (RCQ) is a 16-item measure that captures the degree to which Black individuals behaviorally and cognitively identify or connect with the Black community. The measure includes two sub-scales: Racial Agency and Psychological Cohesion. Racial Agency captures the desire to participate within Black spaces and take action to support the Black community. Psychological Cohesion pertains to the emotional or cognitive beliefs around collectivism within the Black community.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


Racial Agency
1. I use services in the Black community.
2. I attend church/religious services in the neighborhood in which I grew up.
3. I participate in activities that help Black people in need.
4. Since Barack Obama became U.S. President, I participate in political activities.
5. I help Black kids through mentoring or volunteering.
6. I donate money to Black organizations and causes.
7. If I saw a kid in my neighborhood doing wrong, I would try to stop him/her.
8. I attend political rallies that fight social unfairness.

Psychological Cohesion
9. I owe my success to the support of friends and family.
10. I feel like I am only doing well if Blacks as a whole are doing well.
11. I understand how hard it is for Black folks.
12. I like living around people who look like me.
13. We have to change the problems in the Black community ourselves.
14. Black people need to stick together.
15. Having a Black President makes me feel like I can do more to help my community.
16. Being Black is an important part of who I am.

Response Options:
4-point Likert scale
Strongly disagree - 1
Strongly agree - 4

Scoring Procedures

Higher scores indicate greater social and behavioral identification with the Black community as a collective. Lower scores indicate less social and behavioral identification with the Black community as a collective.

Original Citation

Bentley-Edwards, K. L. (2014). Hope, agency, or disconnect: Scale construction for measures of Black racial cohesion and dissonance. Journal of Black Psychology, 42(1), 73-99.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








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