Liberal Feminist Attitude and Ideology Scale (LFAIS)

Liberal Feminist Attitude and Ideology Scale (LFAIS) is a 60-item measure of the extent to which individuals embrace feminist ideology and attitudes. Sub-domains of the measure include aspects of gender roles, global goals, specific political agendas, discrimination and subordination, collective action and sisterhood.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


Gender Roles
1. It is insulting to the husband when his wife does not take his last name.
2. If the husband is the sole wage earner in the family, the financial decisions should be his.
3. When they go out, a man and woman should share dating expenses if they both have the same income.
4. As head of the household, the father should have final authority over his children.
5. Both husband and wife should be equally responsible for the care of young children.
6. The first duty of a woman with young children is to home and family.
7. A man who has chosen to stay at home and be a house-husband is not less masculine than a man who is employed full-time.
8. An employed woman can establish as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who is not employed.
9. A woman should not let bearing and rearing children stand in the way of a career if she wants it.
10. Women should be more concerned with clothing and appearance than men.

Global Goals
11. Women should be considered as seriously as men as candidates for the Presidency of the United States.
12. Access to education is a crucial part of gaining equal rights for women.
13. Although women can be good leaders, men make better leaders.
14. A woman should have the same job opportunities as a man.

Feminism Scale
15. Boys and girls should be able to be whatever they want to be provided that they have the skills and training the job demands.
16. Equality between the sexes is a worthwhile goal.
17. Men should respect women more than they currently do.
18. Stereotypes of men and women hurt everyone.
19. Men and women should be able to freely make choices about their lives without being restricted by their gender.
20. Childrearing, whether done by men or women, needs to be valued more by society.

Specific Political Agendas
21. There are circumstances in which women should be paid less than men for equal work.
22. Many women in the work force are taking jobs away from men who need the jobs more.
23. Homemakers deserve to earn social security benefits for their work in the home.
24. The government has not given enough attention to providing quality low-cost daycare to parents.
25. It is our society's responsibility to provide good daycare for children.
26. Abortion is an issue of women's rights.
27. A woman should not have to get permission from important people in her life in order to get an abortion.
28. Doctors need to take women's health concerns more seriously.
29. If men were the sex who got pregnant, more reliable and convenient birth control would be available.
30. Legislation is needed to insure that a woman can keep her job after she has a baby.
31. America should pass the Equal Rights Amendment.
32. There are too few admirable roles for women on T.V.
33. It is reasonable to boycott a company's product if you think that their commercials are sexist.
34. Violence against women is not taken seriously enough.
35. There is no such thing as rape between a man and his wife.
36. Sexual harassment is a serious problem in America's workplaces.
37. The prior sexual conduct of a rape victim should be admissible as evidence in court.
38. Gay and lesbian couples should be able to publicly show their affection for one another, for instance by holding hands while walking.
39. Gay and lesbian couples should be provided with "spousal privileges" such as the extension of medical insurance to one's partner.
40. A woman who has many sexual partners is not necessarily a slut.

Discrimination and Subordination (Historical and Current)
41. Even though some things have changed, women are still treated unfairly in today's society.
42. Women have been treated unfairly on the basis of their gender throughout most of human history.
43. The achievements of women in history have not been emphasized as much as those of men.
44. Men have too much influence in American politics compared to women.
45. People who complain that pornography treats women like objects are overreacting.
46. Men still don't take women's ideas seriously.
47. Women are already given equal opportunities with men in all important sectors of their lives.
48. Women have fewer choices available to them as compared to men.
49. Women in the U.S. are treated as second-class citizens.
50. All men receive economic, sexual, and psychological benefits from male domination.

Collective Action (Strategies for Change)
51. Women need to unite and work together to achieve equal political and social rights in this country.
52. A "women's movement" is basically irrelevant to the most vital concerns of our society.
53. The government should definitely play a role in helping to improve women's status in society.
54. A radical restructuring of society is needed to overcome status inequalities between the sexes.
55. Women can best overcome discrimination by doing the best that they can at their jobs, not by wasting time with political activity.
56. While women may be right to be unhappy about some aspects of their roles in society, they are wrong in the way they are protesting.
57. Most group protests only serve to make the public see the protestors as fanatics.
58. In order to change inequities between the sexes, we have to do more than just treat men and women fairly in our own lives.
59. Most group protests fail to result in any real change.
60. If we leave well enough alone, eventually men and women will be treated fairly.

Response Options:
Strongly disagree- 1
Disagree- 2
Disagree slightly- 3
Agree slightly- 4
Agree- 5
Strongly agree- 6

Scoring Procedures

Scores are summed to get a final score for Liberal Feminist Attitude and Ideology. Items were coded such that a high score indicated a strong feminist position.

Original Citation

Morgan, B. L. (1996). Putting the feminism into feminism scales: Introduction of a Liberal Feminist Attitude and Ideology Scale (LFAIS). Sex Roles, 34(5/6), 359-390.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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