Liberal Feminist Attitude and Ideology Scale (LFAIS)
Liberal Feminist Attitude and Ideology Scale (LFAIS) is a 60-item measure of the extent to which individuals embrace feminist ideology and attitudes. Sub-domains of the measure include aspects of gender roles, global goals, specific political agendas, discrimination and subordination, collective action and sisterhood.
High Psychometric Score
United States of America
1. It is insulting to the husband when his wife does not take his last name.
2. If the husband is the sole wage earner in the family, the financial decisions should be his.
3. When they go out, a man and woman should share dating expenses if they both have the same income.
4. As head of the household, the father should have final authority over his children.
5. Both husband and wife should be equally responsible for the care of young children.
6. The first duty of a woman with young children is to home and family.
7. A man who has chosen to stay at home and be a house-husband is
not less masculine than a man who is employed full-time.
8. An employed woman can establish as warm and secure a relationship
with her children as a mother who is not employed.
9. A woman should not let bearing and rearing children stand in the way
of a career if she wants it.
10. Women should be more concerned with clothing and appearance than
11. Women should be considered as seriously as men as candidates for the
Presidency of the United States.
12. Access to education is a crucial part of gaining equal rights for women.
13. Although women can be good leaders, men make better leaders.
14. A woman should have the same job opportunities as a man.
15. Boys and girls should be able to be whatever they want to be provided
that they have the skills and training the job demands.
16. Equality between the sexes is a worthwhile goal.
17. Men should respect women more than they currently do.
18. Stereotypes of men and women hurt everyone.
19. Men and women should be able to freely make choices about their
lives without being restricted by their gender.
20. Childrearing, whether done by men or women, needs to be valued more
Specific Political Agendas
21. There are circumstances in which women should be paid less than men
for equal work.
22. Many women in the work force are taking jobs away from men who
need the jobs more.
23. Homemakers deserve to earn social security benefits for their work in
24. The government has not given enough attention to providing quality
low-cost daycare to parents.
25. It is our society's responsibility to provide good daycare for children.
26. Abortion is an issue of women's rights.
27. A woman should not have to get permission from important people in
her life in order to get an abortion.
28. Doctors need to take women's health concerns more seriously.
29. If men were the sex who got pregnant, more reliable and convenient
birth control would be available.
30. Legislation is needed to insure that a woman can keep her job after
she has a baby.
31. America should pass the Equal Rights Amendment.
32. There are too few admirable roles for women on T.V.
33. It is reasonable to boycott a company's product if you think that their
commercials are sexist.
34. Violence against women is not taken seriously enough.
35. There is no such thing as rape between a man and his wife.
36. Sexual harassment is a serious problem in America's workplaces.
37. The prior sexual conduct of a rape victim should be admissible as
evidence in court.
38. Gay and lesbian couples should be able to publicly show their affection
for one another, for instance by holding hands while walking.
39. Gay and lesbian couples should be provided with "spousal privileges"
such as the extension of medical insurance to one's partner.
40. A woman who has many sexual partners is not necessarily a slut.
Discrimination and Subordination (Historical and Current)
41. Even though some things have changed, women are still treated
unfairly in today's society.
42. Women have been treated unfairly on the basis of their gender
throughout most of human history.
43. The achievements of women in history have not been emphasized as
much as those of men.
44. Men have too much influence in American politics compared to
45. People who complain that pornography treats women like objects are
46. Men still don't take women's ideas seriously.
47. Women are already given equal opportunities with men in all important
sectors of their lives.
48. Women have fewer choices available to them as compared to men.
49. Women in the U.S. are treated as second-class citizens.
50. All men receive economic, sexual, and psychological benefits from male
Collective Action (Strategies for Change)
51. Women need to unite and work together to achieve equal political and
social rights in this country.
52. A "women's movement" is basically irrelevant to the most vital
concerns of our society.
53. The government should definitely play a role in helping to improve
women's status in society.
54. A radical restructuring of society is needed to overcome status
inequalities between the sexes.
55. Women can best overcome discrimination by doing the best that they
can at their jobs, not by wasting time with political activity.
56. While women may be right to be unhappy about some aspects
of their roles in society, they are wrong in the way they are
57. Most group protests only serve to make the public see the protestors
58. In order to change inequities between the sexes, we have to do more
than just treat men and women fairly in our own lives.
59. Most group protests fail to result in any real change.
60. If we leave well enough alone, eventually men and women will be
Strongly disagree- 1
Disagree slightly- 3
Agree slightly- 4
Strongly agree- 6
Scores are summed to get a final score for Liberal Feminist Attitude and Ideology. Items were coded such that a high score indicated a strong feminist position.
Morgan, B. L. (1996). Putting the feminism into feminism scales: Introduction of a Liberal Feminist Attitude and Ideology Scale (LFAIS). Sex Roles, 34(5/6), 359-390. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01547807