Demographic and Health Survey Phase 8 (DHS-8): Employment and Wage Equality

The Demographic and Health Survey Phase 8 (DHS-8): Employment and Wage Equality includes 8 items from the Women's Questionnaire measuring an individual’s experience of employment. Different aspects captured include type of work performed, duration of employment, and gender pay gap in the household. Navigational aspects (i.e. skip-out patterns and next question sequences) have not been included on this page but can be viewed on the original questionnaire located here.


Geographies Tested: Afghanistan,Angola,Burkina Faso,Cambodia,Cameroon,Cote d'Ivoire,Ethiopia,Ghana,Guatemala,Guinea,Kenya,Madagascar,Mozambique,Myanmar (Burma),Nepal,Rwanda,Senegal,The Gambia,Zimbabwe

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


 1. Aside from your own housework, have you done any work in the last 7 days?
 2. As you know, some women take up jobs for which they are paid in cash or kind. Others sell things, have a small business or work on the family farm or in the family business. In the last 7 days, have you done any of these things or any other work?
 3. Although you did not work in the last 7 days, do you have any job or business from which you were absent for leave, illness, vacation, maternity leave, or any other such reason?
 4. Have you done any work in the last 12 months?

Response Options:

 5. Do you do this work for a member of your family, for someone else, or are you self-employed?

Response Options:
For family member
For someone else

 6. Do you usually work throughout the year, or do you work seasonally, or only once in a while?

Response Options:
Throughout the year
Seasonallypart of the year
Once in a while

 7. Are you paid in cash or in kind for this work or are you not paid at all?

Response Options:
Cash only
Cash and kind
In kind only
Not paid

 8. Would you say that the money you earn is more than what your (husbandpartner) earns, less than what he earns, or about the same?

Response Options:
More than him
Less than him
About the same
Husbandpartner has no earnings
Don’t know

Scoring Procedures

Not Applicable

Original Citation

Demographic and Health Surveys (2019). Demographic and Health Surveys: Women's Questionnaire.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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