The Demographic and Health Survey Phase 8 (DHS-8): Employment and Wage Equality includes 8 items from the Women's Questionnaire measuring an individual’s experience of employment. Different aspects captured include type of work performed, duration of employment, and gender pay gap in the household. Navigational aspects (i.e. skip-out patterns and next question sequences) have not been included on this page but can be viewed on the original questionnaire located here.
Geographies Tested: Afghanistan,Angola,Burkina Faso,Cambodia,Cameroon,Cote d'Ivoire,Ethiopia,Ghana,Guatemala,Guinea,Kenya,Madagascar,Mozambique,Myanmar (Burma),Nepal,Rwanda,Senegal,The Gambia,Zimbabwe
Populations Included: Female
Age Range: Adolescents, Adults
1. Aside from your own housework, have you done any work in the last 7 days?
2. As you know, some women take up jobs for which they are paid in cash or kind. Others sell things, have a small business or work on the family farm or in the family business. In the last 7 days, have you done any of these things or any other work?
3. Although you did not work in the last 7 days, do you have any job or business from which you were absent for leave, illness, vacation, maternity leave, or any other such reason?
4. Have you done any work in the last 12 months?
5. Do you do this work for a member of your family, for someone else, or are you self-employed?
For family member
For someone else
6. Do you usually work throughout the year, or do you work seasonally, or only once in a while?
Throughout the year
Seasonallypart of the year
Once in a while
7. Are you paid in cash or in kind for this work or are you not paid at all?
Cash and kind
In kind only
8. Would you say that the money you earn is more than what your (husbandpartner) earns, less than what he earns, or about the same?
More than him
Less than him
About the same
Husbandpartner has no earnings
Demographic and Health Surveys (2019). Demographic and Health Surveys: Women's Questionnaire. https://dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-DHSQ8-DHS-Questionnaires-and-Manuals.cfm
Ease of Use Score
Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework
Field Expert Input
Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing