Hoffman Gender Scale-Male

The Hoffman Gender Scale-Male is a 14-item measure of gender self-confidence. Items are divided into 2 subscales: Gender Self-Definition and Gender Self-Acceptance.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Gender Self-Definition
1. When I am asked to describe myself, being male is one of the first things I think of.
2. My perception of myself is positively associated with my biological sex.
3. I define myself largely in terms of my masculinity.
4. My identity is strongly tied to my masculinity.
5. Being a male is a critical part of how I view myself.
6. Masculinity is an important aspect of my self-concept.
7. Being a male contributes a great deal to my sense of confidence.

Gender Self-Acceptance
8. I am confident in my masculinity.
9. I meet my personal standards for masculinity.
10. I am secure in my masculinity.
11. I have a high regard for myself as a male.
12. I am happy with myself as a male.
13. I am very comfortable being a male.
14. My sense of myself as a male is positive.

Response Options:
Strongly disagree - 1
Disagree - 2
Somewhat agree - 3
Tend to agree - 4
Agree - 5
Strongly agree - 6

Scoring Procedures

The mean of all item scores is calculated for each subscale score. Higher scores on the Gender Self-Definition subscale correspond to attributing a greater deal of importance to masculinity as part of their identity. Higher scores on the Gender Self-Acceptance scale correspond to more acceptance of themselves as male without necessarily strongly defining themselves in terms of their notions of masculinity.

Original Citation

Hoffman, R. M., Borders, L. D., & Hattie, J. A. (2000). Reconceptualizing femininity and masculinity: From gender roles to gender self-confidence. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(4), 475-503.

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Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








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