Ability to Refuse Sex is an 8-item measure of scenarios in which the respondent agrees or disagrees that a wife can refuse to have sex with her husband in certain scenarios.
1. If she does not want to
2. If he is drunk
3. If she is sick
4. If he mistreats her
5. If she suspects he has been unfaithful
6. If she knows he has been unfaithful
7. If he refuses to use condoms
8. If she has pelvic or menstrual pain
Agree - 1
Disagree - 0
Item scores are summed to create a continuous measure.
Gupta, J., Falb, K. L., Lehmann, H., Kpebo, D., Xuan, Z., Hossain, M., Zimmerman, C., Watts, C., & Annan, J. (2013). Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Cote d’ Invoire: A randomized controlled pilot study. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 13(46), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-698X-13-46
Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework
Field Expert Input
Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing