Transgender-Specific Intimate Partner Violence (T-IPV) Scale

Transgender-Specific Intimate Partner Violence (T-IPV) Scale is an 8-item scale that screens for IPV among transgender individuals. Items cover controlling behaviors and psychological abuse tactics.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Transgender

Age Range: Adults


Relationships can have good and bad moments. Some questions may be difficult to answer. Your answers will be kept confidential. In your lifetime, did any of your partners do any of the following things to you? By partner, we mean a person you were dating, in a sexual relationship with, or married to.

1. Did a partner hide, damage, or destroy your hormones, clothing or other items (makeup, binders, prosthetics) related to gender transition?
2. Did a partner force or pressure you into not pursuing aspects of gender transition that you wanted, such as name change, hormones, or surgery?
3. Did a partner force or pressure you into wearing certain clothes, hairstyles, makeup, or other aspects of gender presentation that did not match your gender identity?
4. Did a partner "out" you or threaten to "out" you, i.e. tell someone else you are transgender against your wishes, in order to shame you or make you feel unsafe?
5. Did a partner ever tell you that no one else would want to be with someone like you because you are transgender?
6. Did a partner ever tell you that you are not a "real" man or "real" woman?
7. Did a partner ever intentionally call you by the wrong name or pronoun to hurt you?
8. Did you a partner tell you to not "act" trans, or to act more feminine or more masculine?

Response Options:
Yes - 1
No - 0

For participants who said "yes" to any of the above questions, a follow up question was asked: "Has this happened in the last 12 months?"

Scoring Procedures

Respondents were considered to have experienced transgender-specific IPV if they answered "yes" to any of the items.

Original Citation

Peitzmeier, S. M., Wirtz, A. L., Humes, E., Hughto, J. M. W., Cooney, E., Reisner, S. L., & American Cohort To Study, H. I. V. A. A. T. W. (2021). The transgender-specific intimate partner violence scale for research and practice: Validation in a sample of transgender women. Social Science & Medicine, 291, 114495.

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