Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale

The Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale is a 35-item self-report measure of individual beliefs associated with masculinity ideologies, validated using data from Chilean, Anglo-American, and African-American males. Different aspects of masculinity ideologies captured by the scale include beliefs regarding normative sexual behaviors, self-confidence and achievement, and expressing emotion.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


1. Guys should be courteous to women.
2. A guy should let people know how he feels.
3. A guy should not have male friends who are homosexual.
4. A guy should prove his masculinity by having sex with a lot of people.
5. Guys should not try to solve problems by fighting.
6. Providing for his family should be a man’s main goal in life.
7. Male friends should not show affection to each other.
8. A guy should look for a date who has a good personality rather than one who is really good looking.
9. Guys should have a positive attitude towards life and not let things get them down.
10. A guy should be confident in everything he does.
11. In a relationship, guys should have sexual intercourse as often as possible.
12. To be a guy, you’ve got to be tough.
13. Strong anger is a natural emotion for a guy to show.
14. A guy should have long-term goals for his life. 15. A guy should not show affection to those he loves.
16. A guy should put his best effort into every part of his life.
17. Courage should not be a necessary part of being a guy.
18. Being a virgin should not be an embarrassment to a guy.
19. Even if a guy is not rich, he should try to look that way.
20. A guy should always have a woman he is dating.
21. Guys should not cry even when something really bad happens.
22. A guy doesn’t have to be aggressive to get what he wants out of life.
23. In a relationship, guys should have sexual intercourse before having oral sex.
24. A man should not always have to protect his family. 25. The best way a man can care for his family is to get the highest paying job he can.
26. Guys should be competitive.
27. A guy should have sexual intercourse only in emotionally committed relationships.
28. Even when things get really difficult, a guy should keep trying.
29. A guy should not look for danger just for the thrill of it.
30. Being athletic or good at a sport should be important for a guy.
31. A guy should have sexual intercourse as early as he can in his life.
32. Showing emotion is not a sign of weakness in a guy.
33. A guy should take risks to reach his goals. 34. For a guy, sexual intercourse should not be the goal of making out.
35. A guy should be independent and not get too attached to others.

Response Options:
5-point Likert scale
Strongly disagree - 1
Strongly agree - 5

Scoring Procedures

The MMIS is scored as 7 separate sub-scales that are created using a sub-set of items for a particular sample population (Chilean, Anglo-American, African-American) based on etic and emic components. Items are coded to reflect more masculine attitudes, however, items that are reverse coded are marked with an *. Items within each sub-scale are averaged to create the final score.

Etic Component 1: Hypermasculine Posturing-used with all 3 samples
Items: 3, 4, 5*, 11, 12, 13, 15, 19, 20, 21, 25, 30, 31

Etic Component 2: Achievement-used with all 3 samples
Items: 9, 10, 14, 16, 24*, 26, 28, 33

Chilean Emic Component 1: Toughness
Items: 5*, 6, 12, 13, 17*, 21, 23*, 25

Chilean Emic Component 2: Pose
Items: 4, 15, 19, 24, 32*

Chilean Emic Component 3: Responsibility
Items: 8, 14, 27, 29, 34

Anglo-American Emic Component: Sensitivity
Items: 2, 5, 15*, 22, 29, 35*

African-American Emic Component: Sexual Responsibility
Items: 22, 23, 27, 34

Original Citation

Doss, B. D., & Hopkins, J. R. (1998). The multicultural masculinity ideology scale: Validation from three cultural perspectives. Sex Roles, 38(9-10), 719-741.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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