Proximal Antecedents of Violent Episodes (PAVE)

The Proximal Antecedents of Violent Episodes (PAVE) scale is a 20-item measure of an individual’s perception and experience relating to the situational onset of violence in an intimate relationship. The measure was developed to differentiate among types of partner-related violence and includes three domains: Violence to Control, Violence Out of Jealousy, and Verbal Abuse.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


Sometimes there are situations when people are more likely to become PHYSICALLY aggressive than other times. Sometimes people feel that violence is justified, given the situation. Please indicate how likely it is that you would be physically aggressive in each of the following types of situations, if they were to arise.

  1. My partner does something to offend or “disrespect” me.
  2. My partner threatens to leave me.
  3. My partner just won’t stop talking or nagging.
  4. I walk in and catch my partner having sex with some- one.
  5. My partner says “I wish I never married you.”
  6. My partner spends a lot of time with close friends of the opposite sex.
  7. I find out that my partner has been flirting with someone.
  8. My partner comes home late.
  9. My partner spends money without consulting me.
  10. When my partner and I argue about sex.
  11. My partner threatens to divorce me.
  12. My partner ridicules or makes fun of me.
  13. My partner tells me not to do something that I want to do.
  14. My partner tries to control me.
  15. My partner interrupts me when I’m talking.
  16. My partner does not include me in important decisions.
  17. My partner ignores me.
  18. My partner is physically aggressive towards me first.
  19. My partner tries to leave during an argument.
  20. My partner blames me for something I didn’t do.

Response Options:
Items are rated on a 6-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all likely) to 6 (extremely likely).

Scoring Procedures

Responses are summed to create a total score.

Original Citation

Babcock, J. C., Costa, D. M., Green, C. E., & Eckhardt, C. I. (2004). What situations induce intimate partner violence? A reliability and validity study of the Proximal Antecedents to Violent Episodes (PAVE) scale. Journal of family psychology, 18(3), 433.

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