Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) - Adverse Child Experiences (ACEs) Among Young Adolescents

Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) - Adverse Child Experiences (ACEs) Among Young Adolescents is an 11-item measure of where experiences are classified as either Maltreatment ACEs or Household ACEs. With one exception where interviewers were used, data were self-reported anonymously using tablets.


Geographies Tested: Belgium,Bolivia,Burkina Faso,China,Democratic Republic of the Congo,Ecuador,Egypt,India,Kenya,Malawi,Nigeria,South Africa,United Kingdom,United States of America,Vietnam

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents


Maltreatment ACEs
1. Have you ever been scared that your parents or other adults were going to hurt you badly (so that you were injured or killed)?
2. Have you ever been scared or felt really bad because grown-ups called you names, said mean things to you, or said they did not want you?
3. Has there ever been a time of your life when you were totally on your own and had to take care of yourself for more than a short time?
4. Have you ever felt like you are not loved or cared about?
5. Have you ever felt like you have no one that protects you?
6. Has an adult ever touched you in your private parts except when being bathed?
7. Has an adult ever attempted or forced you to have sexual intercourse?

Household ACEs
8. Have your parents/guardian ever drunk too much alcohol or used drugs so they came home and were really abusive to you or your family?
9. Have you ever seen your mother or father so sad that they could not take care of you?
10. Have you ever seen your mom being hit, beaten or threatened?
11. Have any of your parents ever been in prison/jail?

Response Options:
Often - 1
Sometimes - 1
Never - 0
Don't know
Refuse to answer

Scoring Procedures

An index score for ACEs exposure is created by summing the exposure to all items with a range from 0 to 11. Don’t know and refuse to answer to any item is coded as missing.

Original Citation

Blum, R. W., Li, M., & Naranjo-Rivera, G. (2019). Measuring adverse child experiences among young adolescents globally: Relationships with depressive symptoms and violence perpetration. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(1), 86-93.

Psychometric Score

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Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



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