Adverse Child Experiences (ACEs) Among Young Adolescents

Adverse Child Experiences (ACEs) Among Young Adolescents is an 11-item measure used as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS). Items are classified as either Maltreatment ACEs or Household ACEs and with one exception where interviewers were used, data were self-reported anonymously using tablets.


Multi-Country

ITEMS:

Maltreatment ACEs
1. Have you ever been scared that your parents or other adults were going to hurt you badly (so that you were injured or killed)?
2. Have you ever been scared or felt really bad because grown-ups called you names, said mean things to you, or said they did not want you?
3. Has there ever been a time of your life when you were totally on your own and had to take care of yourself for more than a short time?
4. Have you ever felt like you are not loved or cared about?
5. Have you ever felt like you have no one that protects you?
6. Has an adult ever touched you in your private parts except when being bathed?
7. Has an adult ever attempted or forced you to have sexual intercourse?

Household ACEs
8. Have your parents/guardian ever drunk too much alcohol or used drugs so they came home and were really abusive to you or your family?
9. Have you ever seen your mother or father so sad that they could not take care of you?
10. Have you ever seen your mom being hit, beaten or threatened?
11. Have any of your parents ever been in prison/jail?

Response Options:
Often - 1
Sometimes - 1
Never - 0
Don't know
Refuse to answer

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

Belgium
Bolivia
Burkina Faso
China
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Ecuador
Egypt
India
Kenya
Malawi
Nigeria
South Africa
United Kingdom
United States of America
Vietnam

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female
Male

AGE RANGE:
Adolescents

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

An index score for ACEs exposure is created by summing the exposure to all items with a range from 0 to 11. Don’t know and refuse to answer to any item is coded as missing.

PRIMARY CITATION:

Blum, R. W., Li, M., & Naranjo-Rivera, G. (2019). Measuring adverse child experiences among young adolescents globally: Relationships with depressive symptoms and violence perpetration. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(1), 86-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.01.020

Psychometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

MEDIUM
Total Score: 4.00/8 Points (MEDIUM) 

Citation Frequency

MEDIUM

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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