Male Role Norms Inventory – Revised (MRNI-R)

The Male Role Norms Inventory – Revised (MRNI-R) is a 49-item self-reported measure of individual beliefs about male gender norms. This scale a shortened version of the Male Role Norms Inventory measure (Levant et al., 2010). The items are separated into seven subscales: Restrictive Emotionality, Self-Reliance Through Mechanical Skills, Negativity Toward Sexual Minorities, Avoidance of Femininity, Importance of Sex, Toughness, and Dominance. Different aspects of male role norms captured by this scale include expression of emotions, physical appearance, and aggression.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Restrictive Emotionality
1. A man should never admit when others hurt his feelings.
2. Men should not be too quick to tell others that they care about them.
3. Men should be detached in emotionally charged situations.
4. A man should not react when other people cry.
5.One should not be able to tell how a man is feeling by looking at his face.
6. Fathers should teach their sons to mask fear.
7. Being a little down in the dumps is not a good reason for a man to act depressed.
8. A man should avoid holding his wife's purse at all times.
9. Men should not borrow money from friends or family members.
10. I might find it a little silly or embarrassing if a male friend of mine cried over a sad love story. (Avoidance of Femininity).
11. A man should not continue a friendship with another man if he finds out that the other man is homosexual. (Negativity Toward Sexual Minorities).
12. A man shouldn't bother with sex unless he can achieve orgasm.

Self-Reliance Through Mechanical Skills
13. Men should have home improvement skills.
14. Men should be able to fix most things around the house.
15. A man should know how to repair his car if it should break down.

Negativity Toward Sexual Minorities
16. All homosexual bars should be closed down.
17. Homosexuals should never kiss in public.
18. Homosexuals should never marry.
19. Homosexuals should be barred from the teaching profession.
20. Homosexuals should not be allowed to serve in the military.
21. It is disappointing to learn that a famous athlete is gay.
22. Men should never compliment or flirt with another male.
23. Men should never hold hands or show affection toward another.
24. A man should not continue a friendship with another man if he finds out that the other man is homosexual. (Restrictive Emotionality).

Avoidance of Femininity
25. Boys should play with action figures not dolls.
26. Men should watch football games instead of soap operas.
27. Boys should prefer to play with trucks rather than dolls.
28. A man should prefer watching action movies to reading romantic novels.
29. Men should not wear make-up, cover-up, or bronzer.
30. Boys should not throw baseballs like girls.
31. Men should not be interested in talk shows such as "Oprah."
32. Men should excel at contact sports.
33. I might find it a little silly or embarrassing if a male friend of mine cried over a sad love story. (Restrictive Emotionality).

Importance of Sex
34. A man should always be ready for sex.
35. A man should not turn down sex.
36. Men should always like to have sex.
37. It is ok for a man to use any and all means to "convince" a woman to have sex. (Restrictive Emotionality)

38. When the going gets tough, men should get tough.
39. I think a young man should try to be physically tough, even if he's not big.
40. Men should get up to investigate if there is a strange noise in the house at night.
41. It is important for a man to take risks, even if he might get hurt.
42. A man must be able to make his own way in the world.

43. Men should be the leader in any group.
44. A man should always be the boss.
45. Men should make the final decision involving money.
46. The President of the U.S. should always be a man.
47. A man should provide the discipline in the family.
48. A man should always be the major provider in his family.
49. In a group, it is up to the men to get things organized and moving ahead.

Response Options:
7-point Likert scale
Strongly disagree - 1
Strongly agree - 7

Scoring Procedures

The MRNI-R and its seven subscales receive scores on a scale ranging from 1 to 7. Higher scores indicate more traditional gender role beliefs.

Original Citation

Levant, R. F., Rankin, T. J., Williams, C. M., Hasan, N. T., & Smalley, K. B. (2010). Evaluation of the factor structure and construct validity of scores on the Male Role Norms Inventory—Revised (MRNI-R). Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 11(1), 25.

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