Cardiff Fertility Knowledge Scale

The Cardiff Fertility Knowledge Scale is a 13-item measure of an individual's knowledge regarding 3 areas of fertility: indicators of reduced fertility, misconceptions about fertility and basic facts about infertility.


Geographies Tested: Australia,Brazil,Canada,China,Denmark,France,Germany,India,Italy,Japan,Mexico,New Zealand,Portugal,Russia,Spain,Turkey,United Kingdom,United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


1. A woman is less fertile after the age of 36 years.
2. A couple would be classified as infertile is they did not achieve a pregnancy after 1 year of regular sexual intercourse (without using contraception).
3. Smoking decreases female fertility.
4. Smoking decreases male fertility.
5. About 1 in 10 couples are infertile.
6. If a man produces sperm he is fertile.
7. These days a woman in her 40s has a similar chance of getting pregnant as a woman in her 30s.
8. Having a healthy lifestyle makes you fertile.
9. If a man has had mumps after puberty he is more likely to later have a fertility problem.
10. A women who never menstruates is still fertile.
11. If a woman is overweight by more than 2 stones (13 kg or 28 pounds) then she may not be able to get pregnant.
12. If a man can achieve an erection then it is an indication that he is fertile.
13. People who have had a sexually transmitted disease are likely to have reduced fertility.

Response Options:
Don't know

Scoring Procedures

Each correct answer is given a score of 1 and incorrect or "don't know" responses are given 0. Points were then averaged then multiplied by 100 to produce a percentage correct fertility knowledge score with a range of zero to 100%.

Correct answers:
True: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 13
False: 6, 7, 8, 10, 12

Original Citation

Bunting, L., Tsibulsky, I., & Boivin, J. (2013). Fertility knowledge and beliefs about fertility treatment: findings from the International Fertility Decision-making Study. Human Reproduction, 28(2), 385-397.

Psychometric Score

Citation Frequency

Ease of Use Score

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)


Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity