Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS)

The Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS) is a 20-item measure of the cognitive aspects of color-blind racial attitudes. The scale has 3 factors: Unawareness of Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults



  1. White people in the U.S. have certain advantages because of the color of their skin.
  2. Race is very important in determining who is successful and who is not.
  3. Race plays an important role in who gets sent to prison.
  4. Race plays a major role in the type of social services (such as type of health care or day care) that people receive in the U.S.
  5. Racial and ethnic minorities do not have the same opportunities as white people in the U.S.
  6. Everyone who works hard, no matter what race they are, has an equal chance to become rich.
  7. White people are more to blame for racial discrimination than racial and ethnic minorities.
  8. Social policies, such as affirmative action, discriminate unfairly against white people.
  9. White people in the U.S. are discriminated against because of the color of their skin.
  10. English should be the only official language in the U.S.
  11. Due to racial discrimination, programs such as affirmative action are necessary to help create equality.
  12. Racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. have certain advantages because of the color of their skin.
  13. It is important that people begin to think of themselves as American and not African American, Mexican American or Italian American.
  14. Immigrants should try to fit into the culture and values of the U.S.
  15. Racial problems in the U.S. are rare, isolated situations.
  16. Talking about racial issues causes unnecessary tension.
  17. Racism is a major problem in the U.S.
  18. It is important for public schools to teach about the history and contributions of racial and ethnic minorities.
  19. It is important for political leaders to talk about racism to help work through or solve society's problems.
  20. Racism may have been a problem in the past, it is not an important problem today.

Response Options: 6-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree to 6 = strongly agree).

Scoring Procedures

Item numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, 17, 18, 19 should be reverse scored. Total CoBRAS scores range from 20 to 120. Items 1 to 7 measure factor 1. Items 8 to 14 measure factor 2. Items 15 to 20 measure factor 3. Mean scores are calculated for overall and each factor. The means for the factors indicate that the participants reported moderate levels of color-blind racial attitudes.

Original Citation

Neville, H. A., Lilly, R. L., Duran, G., Lee, R. M., & Browne, L. (2000). Construction and initial validation of the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), 59–70. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.47.1.59

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