Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale - Brazil

The Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale - Brazil is a 24-item measure of men's attitudes toward gender norms in Brazil. The items are separated into 2 domains: Inequitable Gender Norms and Equitable Gender Norms. This scale addresses a number of domains, including educational roles, employment roles, parental roles, marital roles, and social roles.


Geographies Tested: Brazil

Populations Included: Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Inequitable Gender Norms
1. It is the man who decides what type of sex to have.*
2. A woman's most important role is to take care of her home and cook for her family.*
3. Men need sex more than women do.*
4. You don't talk about sex, you just do it*
5. Women who carry condoms on them are "easy."*
6. A man needs other women, even if things with his wife are fine.*
7. There are times when a woman deserves to be beaten.*
8. Changing diapers, giving the kids a bath, and feeding the kids are the mother's responsibility.*
9. It is a woman's responsibility to avoid getting pregnant.*
10. A man should have the final word about decisions in his home.*
11. Men are always ready to have sex.*
12. A woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together.*
13. If a woman cheats on a man, it is okay for him to hit her.*
14. If someone insults me, I will defend my reputation, with force if I have to.*
15. I would be outraged if my wife asked me to use a condom.*
16. It is okay for a man to hit his wife if she won't have sex with him.*
17. I would never have a gay friend.*

Equitable Gender Norms
18. A couple should decide together if they want to have children.
19. In my opinion, a woman can suggest using condoms just like a man can.
20. If a guy gets a woman pregnant, the child is the responsibility of both.
21. A man should know what his partner likes during sex.
22. It is important that a father is present in the lives of his children, even if he is no longer with the mother.
23. A man and a woman should decide together what type of contraceptive to use.
24. It is important to have a male friend that you can talk about your problems with.

*Items reverse coded during scoring

Response Options:
Agree - 3
Partially agree - 2
Do not agree - 1

Scoring Procedures

Each item is coded such that higher values indicate more gender-equitable beliefs. Reverse coding is necessary for some items to ensure that scores are comparable for all variables. Item scores within each subscale are summed, then subscale scores are combined to create a total score. A continuous scale may be used, or the subscale scores and total score may be placed in one of three categories: low, medium, and high support for gender-equitable norms.

Original Citation

Pulerwitz, J., & Barker, G. (2008). Measuring attitudes toward gender norms among young men in Brazil: Development and psychometric evaluation of the GEM Scale. Men and Masculinities, 10(3), 322–338.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


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