Demographic and Health Surveys Phase 8 (DHS-8): Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures

The Demographic and Health Survey Phase 8 (DHS-8): Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditures includes includes 11 items from the Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures Module assessing household members’ access to health care settings, reason to seek care, expense of care, reason for treatment, and health insurance coverage. Navigational aspects (i.e. skip-out patterns and next question sequences) have not been included on this page but can be viewed on both the original questionnaire located here.

Multi-Country

ITEMS:

 1. Where did (NAME) most recently stay overnight for health care?

Response Options:
Public Sector
Government hospital
Government health center
Government health post
Other public sector (specify)
Private Medical Sector
Private Hospital
Private Clinic
Other private medical sector (specify)
NGO Medical Sector
NGO Hospital
NGO Clinic
Other NGO medical sector (specify)
Other (specify)

 2. What was the main reason for (NAME) to seek care this most recent time?

Response Options:
Pregnancy/delivery
Illness
Accident/injury
Other(specify)
Don’t know

 3. How much money was spent on treatment and services (NAME) received during the most recent overnight stay? We want to know about all the costs for the stay, including any charges for laboratory tests, drugs, or other items.

Response Options:
Cost (5-digit numeric)
No cost/free
In kind only
Don’t know

 4. Is (NAME) covered by any health insurance?

Response Options:
Yes
No
Don’t know

 5. What is (NAME)’s main type of health insurance?

Response Options:
Mutual health organization/community-based health insurance
Health insurance through employer
Social security
Other privately purchased commercial health insurance
Other (specify)
Don’t know

 6. Now I would like to ask some questions about health care that (NAME) received in the last four weeks, without having to stay overnight. Where did (NAME) get care most recently without staying overnight?

Response Options:
Public Sector
Government hospital
Government health center
Government health post
Other public sector (specify)
Private Medical Sector
Private hospital
Private clinic
Pharmacy
Private doctor
Mobile clinic
Fieldworker/Community health worker
Other private medical sector (specify)
NGO Medical Sector
NGO Hospital
NGO Clinic
Other NGO medical sector(specify)
Other Source
Shop
Traditional practitioner
Other (specify)

 7. How much money was spent on treatment and services (NAME) received from (NAME OF PROVIDER)? Please include the consulting fee and any expenses for other items including drugs and tests.

Response Options:
Cost (5-digit numeric)
No cost free
In kind only
Don’t know

 8. What was the main reason for (NAME) to seek care this most recent time?

Response Options:
Family planning
Antenatal care/delivery
Malaria
Fever
Diarrhea
HIV/AIDS/STD
Other Illness
Check-up/Preventive Care
Accident/Injury
Vaccination
Other(specify)

 9. Did (NAME) get care another time in the last four weeks from a health provider, a pharmacy, or a traditional healer, without staying overnight?

Response Options:
Yes
No

 10. How many other times did (NAME) get care in the last four weeks?

Response Options:
Number of outpatient visits (2-digit numeric)
Don’t know

 11. How many times was money spent?

Response Options:
Number of outpatient visits paid money (2-digit numeric)
Don’t know

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

Afghanistan
Angola
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Cote d'Ivoire
Ethiopia
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Kenya
Madagascar
Mozambique
Myanmar (Burma)
Nepal
Rwanda
Senegal
The Gambia
Zimbabwe

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female
Male

AGE RANGE:
Adolescents
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

Not Applicable

PRIMARY CITATION:

Demographic and Health Surveys (2019). Demographic and Health Surveys: Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditures Module. https://dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-DHSQ8-DHS-Questionnaires-and-Manuals.cfm

Pyschometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

NO
Total Score: 0.00/10 Points (NO DATA) 

Citation Frequency

No

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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