Collective Efficacy Among Children Scale (CE-ACS): Willingness to Intervene Subscale

Willingness to Intervene is a 12-item subscale of the Collective Efficacy Among Children Scale (CE-ACS) used to measure informal social control. In particular, it assesses the degree to which elementary school children participating in afterschool programs are motivated to promote positive behavior and discourage peer bullying/aggression. The full CE-ACS also includes a second subscale related to Afterschool Connectedness found here.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Children


1. If children in this program are misbehaving, other children remind them to act their best.
2. If other children start to say bad things to each other, children in this program remind them to say something good to each other.
3. In this program, if we see one child hurting another child, we would tell them to stop.
4. In our program, we can be leaders and help other children do well in our program.
5. In this program, I feel like other children listen to me when I have something to say.
6. The children in our program know how to stick up for a child who is being hurt or treated badly.
7. The children in our program know how to do our work and not let other children get us in trouble.
8. At my afterschool program, if some other kids are going to do something bad, I tell someone who can help.
9. In this program, we help each other when we have problems.
10. If a child is teasing another child because they are not good at sports or exercise, other children tell him or her to stop.
11. In this program, if a kid was going to do something to hurt another kid, one of the other kids would tell someone who can help.
12. If I was asked by another student at this program to do something that I shouldn't do, one of the kids in my afterschool program would tell me not to do it.

Response Options:
Not true - 1
Sometimes true - 2
Very true - 3

Scoring Procedures

The subscale score is based on the average (mean) of the above 12 items.

Original Citation

Smith, E. P., Osgood, D. W., Caldwell, L., Hynes, K., & Perkins, D. F. (2013). Measuring collective efficacy among children in community-based afterschool programs: Exploring pathways toward prevention and positive youth development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52(1-2), 27-40. doi: 10.1007/s10464-013-9574-6

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