Economic Coercion Scale 36 (ECS-36)

The Economic Coercion Scale 36 (ECS-36) is a 36-item measure capturing women's experiences of economic coercion in their intimate relationships. The measure captures barriers to acquire and to use or maintain economic resources. The scale was validated using a sample of 930 married women in Bangladesh.


Geographies Tested: Bangladesh

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Has your husband or partner ever:

1. Disallowed you to go to your work, school, or training, or do any home-based income earning activity?
2. Told you that you could work outside the home only if you kept up with the housework?
3. Told you that you could earn income only if you worked from home?
4. Been wary that you might meet other men when you leave the house for work, school, or training?
5. Told you that you could never keep a job?
6. Influenced you to give up or to refuse to take a job for money because he did not want you to take that job?
7. Threatened to hurt you or your children, or threatened to throw you out or abandon you if you worked?
8. Threatened to withhold money or gifts from you or your children if you worked?
9. Told you that women shouldn’t work outside the home?
10. Told you that women who work outside the home are bad mothers?
11. Told you that you should not work because his parents said your working was wrong?
12. Refused to allow you to continue any education or training after marriage?
13. Not allowed you equal access to the family money?
14. Hidden money so that you could not find it?
15. Kept information on household finances and assets from you?
16. Made you fear the consequences if you asked him for money?
17. Demanded to know how your own money was spent?
18. Made you ask him for money for special purchases, such as cosmetics, saridresses, or special food for guests?
19. Refused to give you money to buy food, clothes, or other necessities, even when he had the money?
20. Blown throughspoiled money despite household needs?
21. Made you feel obliged to give him money?
22. Decided how you should spend money rather than letting you spend it how you saw fit?
23. Made you afraid of the consequences if you spent money without his permission?
24. Made important financial decisions without talking with you about them first?
25. Taken your money from you without your permission or knowledge?
26. Told you or acted as if it was “his money, his house, etc.”?
27. Beaten you or threatened to beat you if your family did not give money which he wanted from them?
28. Beaten you up if you challenged his financial decisions?
29. Forbidden you from becoming a microcredit member, group savings member, or opening a bank account?
30. Demanded that you quit your job, schooling, or training?
31. Picked fights when you needed to leave for work, study, or training?
32. Destroyed or taken something that belonged to you?
33. Had you ask your family or someone else for money but not let you pay them back?
34. Convinced you to lend him money but not pay it back?
35. Pawned or sold your own or your shared belongings or property without your knowledge or consent?
36. Not given you money so that you had to take out loans to cover household expenses?

Response Options:
Ever - yesno
In the past 12 months - yesno
If answered yes for the past 12 months:
1-2 times in the past 12 months
3-5 times in the past 12 months
5+ times in the past 12 months

Scoring Procedures

Not Available

Original Citation

Yount, K. M., Cheong, Y. F., Miedema, S., & Naved, R. T. (2021). Development and validation of the Economic Coercion Scale 36 (ECS-36) in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 886260520987812.

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Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








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