Community Collectivisation Indicators

The Community Collectivisation Indicators measure captures three distinct dimensions or subscales of collectivisation: collective efficacy, collective agency and collective action. Collective efficacy refers to Female Sex Workers' (FSW) confidence in the power of the community to work together for positive change in the interest of the community. Collective agency refers to FSWs’ ability to claim their rights and make others accountable for their rights. Collective action refers to the pursuit of a goal or set of goals by two or more individuals who work together.


Geographies Tested: India

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Collective efficacy
How confident are you that FSWs in your community can work together to achieve the following goals?

1. Keep each other safe from harm
2. Increase condom use with clients
3. Speak up for your rights
4. Improve your lives

Response options:
Not at all - 1
Somewhat - 2
Very - 3
Completely confident - 4

Collective agency

In the past 6 months, have you negotiated with or stood up to the following stakeholders in order to help a fellow sex worker?

5. Police
6. Madambroker
7. Local goon (gang member)
8. Clients or any other sexual partner

Response Options:
Yes - 1
No - 2

Collective action

Whether the sex workers group comes together to demandhelp for the following:

9. Voters’ card
10. Bank account
11. Free education for children
12. Health insurance
13. Representation in government forums
14. Better government health services

Response options:
Yes - 1
No - 2

Scoring Procedures

Scores are averaged and varied from 1 to 2.533.

Original Citation

Parimi, P., Mishra, R. M., Tucker, S., & Saggurti, N. (2012). Mobilising community collectivisation among female sex workers to promote STI service utilisation from the government healthcare system in Andhra Pradesh, India. J Epidemiol Community Health, 66(Suppl 2), ii62-ii68.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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