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Bystander Behaviors Directed at Strangers

Bystander Behaviors Directed at Strangers is a 44-item measure of active bystander behavior across the continuum of sexual and relationship abuse experienced by strangers on college campuses. Items cover 4 subscales: Risky situation, Access resources, Proactive behavior and Party safety.

Categories

Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male, Transgender

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults

Items:

Risky Situation
1. I saw a stranger with their partner. They were in a heated argument. I asked if everything was okay.
2. If a stranger was being shoved or yelled at by their partner, I asked if they needed help.
3. I let a stranger I suspected has been sexually assaulted know that I was available for help and support.
4. I approached a stranger if I thought they were in an abusive relationship and let them know that I was there to help.
5. I stopped and checked with a stranger who looked very intoxicated when they were being taken upstairs at a party or home with someone they just met.
6. If I saw a stranger grabbing or pushing their partner, I said something to them.
7. I expressed concern to a stranger if I saw their partner exhibiting very jealous behavior and trying to control them.
8. If a stranger said they had an unwanted sexual experience but they didn't call it "rape," I expressed concern and/or offered to help.
9. I heard a stranger talking about using physical force with their partner, spoke up against it, and expressed concern for their partner.
10. I confronted a stranger who made excuses for abusive behaviors by others.
11. If I saw a stranger taking a very intoxicated person up to their room, I said something and asked what they were doing.
12. I supported a stranger who wanted to report sexual assault or intimate partner abuse that happened to them even if others could get in trouble.
13. I heard a stranger talking about forcing someone to have sex with them, spoke up against it, and expressed concern for the person who was forced.
14. I told a stranger if I thought their drink may have been spiked with a drug.
15. I expressed disagreement with a stranger who said having sex with someone who is passed out or very intoxicated is okay.
16. I saw a man talking to a female stranger. I could see she was uncomfortable. I asked her if she was okay or tried to start a conversation with her.
17. If I heard sounds of yelling or fighting coming from a stranger's dorm room or other residence walls, I knocked on the door to see if everything was okay.
18. If I heard a stranger insulting their partner, I said something to them.
19. I expressed concern to a stranger who has unexplained bruises that may be signs of abuse in their relationship.

Access Resources
20. I called 911 because of suspicion that a stranger had been drugged.
21. I called 911 or authorities when I heard sounds of yelling and fighting.
22. I accompanied a stranger to a local crisis center.
23. I called a crisis center or community resource for help when a stranger told me they experienced sexual or intimate partner abuse.
24. I called 911 or authorities because someone was yelling for help.
25. I called 911 or authorities when a stranger needed help because of being hurt sexually or physically.
26. When I heard that a stranger was accused of sexual abuse or intimate partner abuse, I came forward with what I knew rather than keeping silent.
27. I went with a stranger to talk with someone (community resource, police, crisis center, etc.) about an unwanted sexual experience or intimate partner abuse.

Proactive Behavior
28. I got further training in skills to confront and prevent sexual abuse and intimate partner abuse.
29. I got advice from others about how to help someone who has experienced sexual abuse or intimate partner abuse.
30. I developed a specific plan for ways I might safely intervene as a bystander if I see sexual abuse or intimate partner abuse happening around me.
31. I educated myself about sexual abuse and what I can do about it.
32. I thought through the pros and cons of different ways I might help if I saw an instance of sexual abuse or intimate partner abuse.
33. I encouraged others to learn more and get involved in preventing sexual or intimate partner abuse.
34. I talked with a stranger about sexual and/or intimate partner abuse as an issue for our community.
35. I tried to get others to help me before trying to do something about sexual abuse or intimate partner abuse that I saw going on.
36. I refused to remain silent about instances of sexual abuse or intimate partner abuse I knew about.
37. I talked with a stranger about what makes a relationship abusive and what warning signs might be.
38. I shared information or resources about sexual assault with strangers.

Party Safety
39. I made sure I left the party with the same people I came with.
40. I made sure a stranger didn't leave an intoxicated friend behind at a party.
41. I talked with a stranger about going to parties together and staying together and leaving together.
42. If a stranger had too much to drink, I asked them if they needed to be walked home from the party.
43. I walked a stranger home from a party when they had too much to drink.
44. I asked a stranger who seems upset if they were okay or needed help.

Response Options:
No - 0
Yes - 1

Scoring Procedures

The mean of each scale is calculated, ranging from 0 to 1.

Original Citation

Banyard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., Cares, A. C., & Warner, R. (2014). How do we know if it works? Measuring outcomes in bystander-focused abuse prevention on campuses. Psychology of Violence, 4(1), 101-115. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033470

Psychometric Score

Citation Frequency

Ease of Use Score

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

Reliability

Internal

Test-retest

Interrater

Validity

Content

Face

Criterion (gold-standard)

Construct

Ease of Use

Readability

Scoring Clarity

Length

KEY