Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale

The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale is a 25-item self-reported measure of personal resilience. Items were based on Kobasa, 1979, Rutter, 1985, and Lyons, 1991. Different aspects of resilience captured by this scale include one’s ability to have hardiness, cope with change, achieve personal goals, and make difficult decisions.


Geographies Tested: United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults


Instructions: For each item, please mark an "x" in the box below that best indicates how much you agree with the following statements as they apply to you over the last month. If a particular situation has not occurred recently, answer according to how you think you would have felt.

1. Able to adapt to change
2. Close and secure relationships
3. Sometimes fate or God can help
4. Can deal with whatever comes
5. Past success gives confidence for new challenge
6. See the humorous side of things
7. Coping with stress strengthens
8. Tend to bounce back after illness or hardship
9. Things happen for a reason
10. Best effort no matter what
11. You can achieve your goals
12. When things look hopeless, I don't give up
13. Know where to turn for help
14. Under pressure, focus and think clearly
15. Prefer to take the lead in problem solving
16. Not easily discouraged by failure
17. Think of self as strong person
18. Make unpopular or difficult decisions
19. Can handle unpleasant feelings
20. Have to act on a hunch
21. Strong sense of purpose
22. In control of your life
23. I like challenges
24. You work to attain your goals
25. Pride in your achievements

Response Options:
Not true at all - 0
Rarely true - 1
Sometimes true - 2
Often true - 3
True nearly all of the time - 4

Scoring Procedures

Scores from all 25 items are summed to create a scale total that ranges from 0 (less resilience) to 100 (greater resilience).

Original Citation

Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression and anxiety, 18(2), 76-82.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


Join the EMERGE Community

to get the latest updates on new measures and guidance for survey researchers