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Beliefs about and Attitudes Toward Menstruation (BATM)

Beliefs about and Attitude toward Menstruation (BATM) is a 45-item measure that can be applied to men and women to understand beliefs and attitudes, inclusive of feelings, towards menstruation. The measure has five sub-dimensions of secrecy, annoyance, proscriptions and prescriptions, disability and pleasant to capture the range of beliefs and attitudes around menstruation.

Categories

Geographies Tested: Mexico,United States of America

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adults

Items:

Secrecy
*1. It is important to talk about the menstrual period with men It is important that women talk about the menstrual period with men
*2. It is important to discuss the topic of the period at school with boys and girls together It is important to discuss the topic of the period at school with boys and girls together
3. We women must hide anything that shows that we are having our periods Women must hide anything that shows that they are having their periods
4. It is important to buy sanitary pads without being seen It is important that women buy sanitary pads without being seen
5. It is uncomfortable for us women to talk about our periods It is uncomfortable for men to talk about the period
6. It is important that nobody knows when a woman is having her period It is important that nobody knows when a woman is having her period
7. It is embarrassing when a man finds out that a woman is having her period It is embarrassing when a man finds out that a woman is having her period
8. Women blush when we see an advertisement about sanitary pads when we are with a man Men blush when we see an advertisement about sanitary pads when we are with a woman
9. It is important to keep the period a secret It is important to keep the period a secret
10. We women should avoid talking about our periods when there are men present Women should avoid talking about their periods when there are men present
*11. It is important to discuss the topic of the period at home openly It is important to discuss the topic of the period at home openly
12. Women must stay away from men while we are having our periods Women must stay away from men while they are having their periods

Annoyance
13. I think there are times when we women cannot stand our periods There are times when women cannot stand their periods
14. The period is dirty The period is dirty
15. Men have a great advantage not having the annoyance of the period Men have a great advantage not having the annoyance of the period
16. We women wish that the period would last for just a few minutes Women wish that the period would last for just a few minutes
17. Women wish that we did not have our periods Women wish that they did not have their periods
18. The period is annoying The period is annoying
19. The period is painful I think the period is painful
20. It is uncomfortable for us women to have our periods It is uncomfortable for women to have their periods
21. The period is a big problem The period is a big problem for women
22. The period is something that we women have to bear The period is something that women have to bear
23. It is hard to live with the period It is hard for women to live with the period
24. It is annoying for us women to have the period every month It is annoying for women to have the period every month
25. The period is really annoying The period is really annoying for women

Proscriptions and Prescriptions
26. Women must avoid swimming while we are having our periods Women must avoid swimming while they are having their periods
27. Women must avoid eating or drinking cold things when we are having our periods Women must avoid eating or drinking cold things when they are having their periods
28. Women must avoid smoking while we are having our periods Women must avoid smoking while they are having their periods
29. Women must avoid eating certain foods while we are having our periods Women must avoid eating certain foods while they are having their periods
30. Women must drink tea while we are having our periods Women must drink tea while they are having their periods
31. Women must avoid carrying heavy things when we are having our periods Women must avoid carrying heavy things when they are having their periods
32. Women must take showers with hot water while we are having our periods Women must take showers with hot water while they are having their periods
33. Women must avoid exercising while we are having our periods Women must avoid exercising while they are having their periods
34. Women must eat or drink hot things when we are having our periods Women must eat or drink hot things when they are having their periods

Disability
35. The period affects the performance of women at work The period affects the performance of women at work
36. The period disables women The period disables women
37. The period affects a woman’s ability to do housework The period affects women’s abilities to do housework
38. Having the period is a punishment for women Having the period is a punishment for women
39. The period affects women’s daily activities The period affects women’s daily activities

Pleasant
40. Women are proud when we start having our periods Women are proud when they start having their periods
41. There are women who feel content to have their periods There are women who feel content to have their periods
42. There are women who are happy every time they have their periods There are women who are happy every time they have their periods
43. There are women who enjoy having their periods There are women who enjoy having their periods
44. There are women who look more attractive while they are having their periods There are women who look more attractive while they are having their periods
45. Women get excited when we have our first periods Women get excited when they have their first periods

Response Options:
Strongly disagree - 1
Strongly agree - 5

*Items are reverse scored.

Scoring Procedures

Not Available

Original Citation

Marvan, M. L., Ramirez-Esparza, D., Cortes-Iniestra, S., & Chrisler, J. C. (2006). Development of a new scale to measure Beliefs about and Attitudes Toward Menstruation (BATM): Data from Mexico and the United States. Health Care for Women International, 27(5), 453-473. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399330600629658

Psychometric Score

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Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

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