Adherence to Traditional Gender Norms & Sexual Self-Efficacy

Adherence to Traditional Gender Norms and Sexual Self-Efficacy is a 13-item measure of levels of agreement with traditional gender roles and norms and the respondent's ability to talk through sexual matters. The scale was validated using a sample of female undergraduate students in Vietnam.


Geographies Tested: Vietnam

Populations Included: Female

Age Range: Adults


How much do you agree with these statements?

Adherence to traditional gender relations
1. After marriage, a wife must reside in her husband’s house.
2. A wife should not argue on a par with her husband on something right or wrong.
3. A husband should be the one who decides how to reasonably spend household income.
4. It is acceptable for a husband to make important decisions in the family without asking for his wife’s opinion.
5. It is acceptable for a husband to beat his wife sometimes when he gets angry.
6. A wife must have her husband’s permission when visiting her relatives or friends without her husband’s company.
7. A wife cannot request her husband to prepare a meal for her.
8. If a husband wants his wife not to go out for paid work but to stay at home in order to take care of the children and housework, the wife should follow this decision.

Sexual self-efficacy.
9. I am confident that I can discuss or negotiate anything with my boyfriend without breaking our relationship.
10. If my boyfriend wants to have sex with me but I do not want to, I can easily refuse.
11. In the future, I can request my boyfriend (or my husband) to use a condom if I want him to do so.
12. In the future, I can decide on my own to use a contraceptive method which is the best for me regardless of my boyfriend’s (or husband’s) acceptance.
13. I am confident that I can ask my boyfriend whether he has ever had sex

Response Options:
Strongly disagree - 1
Disagree - 2
Agree - 3
Strongly agree - 4

Scoring Procedures

Not Available

Original Citation

Bui, T. C., Diamond, P. M., Markham, C., Ross, M. W., Nguyen-Le, T. A., & Tran, L. H. (2010). Gender relations and sexual communication among female students in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam. Culture Health & Sexuality, 12(6), 591-601.

Psychometric Score

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Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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