Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES)

The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is an 18-item measure of the psychological dimension of lack of motivation. The measure quantifies and characterizes apathy in adult patients, treating apathy as a psychological dimension that may be evaluated in patients whose apathy characterizes their overall clinical state, and those in whom it is a symptom of some other syndrome, such as delirium, dementia, or depression.

High Psychometric Score

ITEMS:

Instructions for the self- and informant-rated versions of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES):

“For each question, circle the answer that best describes your (his/ her) thoughts, feelings, and actions during the past 4 weeks.”

For the clinician-rated version of the AES, the following additional instructions apply:

Instructions to patient: “I am going to ask you a series of questions about your thoughts, feelings, and activities. Base your answers on the last 4 weeks. To begin, tell me about your current interests. Tell me about anything that is of interest to you. For example, hobbies or work; activities you are involved in or that you would like to do; interests within the home or outside; with other people or alone; interests that you may be unable to pursue, but which are of interest to you-for example, swimming even though it’s winter.”

Interviewer then notes: (1) Number of interests reported; (2) degree of detail reported for each interest; (3) affective aspects of expression (verbal and nonverbal).

Interviewer then states: “Now I’d like you to tell me about your average day. Start from the time you wake up and go to the time you go to sleep.” How the patient deals with this (and all other) questions is assumed to provide information about how other activities are dealt with (e.g., with initiative, exuberance, and energy). Therefore, prompting is indicated only if the subject seems not to understand what information is being sought or has forgotten the question.

Interviewer notes number of activities, degree of detail, intensity and duration of involvement, and affect associated with presentation of data.

Each item is now presented using the wording of the item itself. Additional information may be requested to clarify responses. Item 15, “Accurate understanding of problems,” is rated by appraising subject’s awareness and understanding of personal or, if present, clinical problems. Simple bridges between items may be used to preserve a conversational quality to the interview. Items are rated as they are presented using all information acquired. The response recorded is the clinician’s assessment of the subject’s response. Thus, if a subject states “a lot” but the clinician judges “somewhat,” the latter is used. The only exceptions are the self evaluation (SE) items (#3, #8, #13, #16). For these items, the subject specifies which response code to use (e.g., Not at All, Slightly); the clinician rater’s appraisal is not considered for SE items.

  1. S/he is interested in things. (+, Q)
  2. S/he gets things done during the day. (+, Q)
  3. Getting things started on his/her own is important to him/her. (+, SE)
  4. S/he is interested in having new experiences. (+, Q)
  5. S/he is interested in learning new things. (+, Q)
  6. S/he puts little effort into anything. (-)
  7. S/he approaches life with intensity. (+)
  8. Seeing a job through to the end is important to her/him. (+, SE)
  9. S/he spends time doing things that interest her/him. (+)
  10. Someone has to tell her/him what to do each day. (-)
  11. S/he is less concerned about her/his problems than s/he should be. (-)
  12. S/he has friends. (+, Q)
  13. Getting together with friends is important to her/him. (+, SE)
  14. When something good happens, s/he gets excited. (+)
  15. S/he has an accurate understanding of her/his problems. (+)
  16. Getting things done during the day is important to her/him. (+, SE)
  17. S/he has initiative. (+)
  18. S/he has motivation. (+)

Note. Items that have positive vs. negative syntax are identified by +/-. : Self-evaluation (SE) items and quantifiable items (Q).

Response Options:
Not at all characteristic.
Slightly characteristic (trivial, questionable, minimal).
Somewhat characteristic (moderate, definite).
Very characteristic (a great deal, strongly).
Requires verbal or nonverbal evidence of intensity.
Note: Very characteristic is the level obtained by normal individuals.

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

United States of America

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Female
Male

AGE RANGE:
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

Not Available

PRIMARY CITATION:

Marin, R. S., Biedrzycki, R. C., & Firinciogullari, S. (1991). Reliability and validity of the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Psychiatry research, 38(2), 143-162.

Pyschometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-Retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

HIGH
Total Score: 8.00/9 Points (HIGH) 

Citation Frequency

High

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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