Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA)

The Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA) is a 33-item instrument designed to measure a wide range of adolescent risk behaviors in mainland China. The measure assesses five factors of risk behavior: Suicide and Self-Injurious Behaviors (SS) with 5 items, Aggression and Violence (AV) with 10 items, Rule Breaking (RB) with 7 items, Substance Use (SU) with 6 items, and Unprotected Sex (US) with 5 items.


Geographies Tested: China

Populations Included: Female, Male

Age Range: Adolescents, Adults


Aggression and Violence
1.Verbally attacked someone
2.Damaged others’ property
3.Made fun of someone for their appearance or physical defect
4.Bullied, threatened, or intimidated someone
5.Been in a physical fight
6.Hit, crushed, pushed, kicked or confined another
7.Ignored driving consequences
8.Planned revenge on someone
9.Blackmailed someone for money
10.Carried a weapon

Suicide and Self-Injurious Behaviors
11.Attempted to cut or scald self
12.Had ideas of suicide
13.Hurt self by biting, scratching, or knocking
14.Attempts at suicide
15.Attempted suicide

Unprotected Sex
16.Ever had sexual intercourse
17.Had sexual intercourse with at least one person
18.Drank alcohol or used drugs before sexual intercourse
19.Caused girl pregnancy (boy) or caused yourself pregnancy (girl)
20.Had sexual intercourse with stranger

Substance Use
21.Used cigarettes
22.Smoked under the pressure of companion
23.Binge drank
24.Were irritable, lost temper, headache, or insomnia due to quit smoking
25.Drank alcohol out of control at a party
26.Drank alcohol to save face

Rule Breaking
27.Skipped classes
28.Ran away from home
29.Received warning, record a demerit, or punishment from school
30.Cheated or plagiarized during examination
31.Lied to family member
33.Stole money from home

Response Options:
Never - 0
1 time per month - 1
2– 4 times per month - 2
2– 3 times per week - 3
4 times or more per week - 4

Scoring Procedures

The mean of item scores is calculated for both the total and 6 sub-scales.

Original Citation

Wang, M., Yi, J., Cai, L., Hu, M., Zhu, X., Yao, S., & Auerbach, R. P. (2012). Development and psychometric properties of the health-risk behavior inventory for Chinese adolescents. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12(94), 1-9.

Psychometric Score

Ease of Use Score

Scoring breakdown

Formative Research

Qualitative Research

Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

Field Expert Input

Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








Criterion (gold-standard)



Ease of Use


Scoring Clarity


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