Measuring Women’s Economic Empowerment

Recommended Measures for Use in Survey Research

Women’s economic empowerment measures must assess women and girls’ capacities and capabilities to a) alter or advance their economic circumstances and b) control economic decisions in their lives. This requires both internal capacities (e.g., skills, self-efficacy); external assets, resources, and opportunities; and a social context supportive of gender equality and safety as well as social norms reinforcing these. Here we focus our modules on women’s agency, safety, and social/digital connectivity in spheres of household, public spaces, community, and workplace. Please see our Social Norms page for norms and attitudes related to these issues.


Last updated on 12 December 2020.

If you have any recommendations, comments or questions regarding this work, please contact us at

This work is supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Grant: OPP1163682.)

You have successfully registered

There was an error while trying to send your request. Please try again.

EMERGE will use the information you provide on this form to be in touch with you and to provide updates and marketing.