Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Male Alcohol-Related Aggression (BAMARA) Inventory

Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Male Alcohol-Related Aggression (BAMARA) Inventory is a 53-item measure of the extent to which men agree with statements referring to opinions about alcohol and physical fights between men at bars. Items in this measure cover 9 subscales relating to their own opinions regarding the acceptability of these situations as well as the perception of the their peers. A shorter 15-item version of the measure can be found here.


High Psychometric Score

ITEMS:

Expected negative consequences
1. My friends would be annoyed with me with I got into a fight at a bar*
2. I'd feel pretty bad about myself the next day if I got into a fight at a bar*
3. Guys who get in fights at bars sometimes lose the respect of their friends*
4. I'd feel pretty bad if I physically hurt someone in a fight at a bar*
5. There's a good chance I'd get badly hurt if I got into a fight at a bar*
6. It ruins all the fun when a fight breaks out a bar*
7. Getting into a fight at a bar would ruin my evening*

Expected positive consequences
8. Winning at a bar fight makes you feel strong
9. I'd feel proud of myself for getting into a fight at a bar if I did it to back up a friend
10. Sometimes it's exciting to be part of a bar fight
11. If I got into a fight at a bar, I'd have a good laugh with my friends about it afterwards
12. A guy feels like a hero when he gets into a bar fight to protect his friends

Personal approval
13. It's okay to get into a fight to back up your friends
14. It's okay to get into a fight with a guy who keeps hitting on your date/partner
15. It's okay to get into a fight with a guy who tries to push you around at a bar
16. I'd lose respect for my male friends if they didn't get into a fight to back me up at a bar
17. It's okay to get into a fight with a guy who insults your date/partner

Perceived male peer approval
18. My male friends think it's okay to get into a fight with a guy who keeps hitting on their date/partner
19. My male friends think it's okay for guys to fight at a bar
20. My male friends think it's okay to get into a fight with a guy who tries to push them around a bar
21. My male friends think it's okay to get into a fight with a guy who insults their date/partner
22. My male friends see nothing wrong with getting into the occasional bar fight
23. My male friends think it's okay to get into a fight to back up their friends at a bar

Perceived female peer approval
24. My female friends think it's okay for a guy to get into a fight with guys who try to push him around at a bar
25. My female friends think it's important for guys to defend themselves when they're at a bar
26. My female friends think it's okay for a guy to get into a fight with guys who insult his date/partner
27. My female friends think it's okay for a guy to get into a fight with guys who keep hitting on his date/partner
28. My female friends think it's okay for guys to fight at a bar
29. My female friends think it's okay for a guy to get into a fight to back up his friends at a bar

Perceived normality
30. Sometimes it's natural for guys to fight when they drink
31. Guys often get into fights when they drink at a bar
32. It's normal for guys to fight at a bar
33. It's no big deal for guys to fight at a bar
34. Fighting is a normal part of going to bars
35. Most guys who fight at a bar are just regular guys letting off steam

Relaxed norms when drinking
36. It's okay to get louder than normal when drinking
37. It's okay to get rowdy when drinking
38. It's okay to do crazy things when drinking
39. I can do almost anything I want when drinking with friends
40. Sometimes it's okay to get a bit obnoxious when drinking

Alcohol as an excuse
41. It's more acceptable for guys to fight when they're drunk than when they're sober
42. I'd be more concerned if guys were fighting when they were sober than when they were drunk
43. It's easier to understand why a guy gets into a fight if you knew he was drunk at the time
44. If a guy started a fight with my friends, I'd be more angry with the guy if he was sober than if he was drunk
45. Guys get away with being offensive if they are drunk at the time
46. Guys get away with being aggressive if they are drunk at the time
47. I'd understand the unacceptable behavior of my friends if they explained they were drunk at the time

Male honor
48. A guy who backs down from a fight at a bar is showing others he can be pushed around
49. Guys are cowards if they back down from a fight at a bar
50. I'd look like a coward if I let a guy push me around at a bar without fighting back
51. I'd be ashamed of myself if I didn't stand up to a guy who was threatening to fight me at a bar
52. A guy has to fight when he is physically threatened at a bar
53. Sometimes it's important to show I'm tough in front of my friends at a bar

Response Options:
Strongly disagree - 1
Disagree - 2
Neither disagree nor agree - 3
Agree - 4
Strongly agree - 5

*Items are reverse scored

CATEGORIES:


GEOGRAPHIES TESTED:

Canada

POPULATIONS INCLUDED:
Male

AGE RANGE:
Adults

DOWNLOAD MEASURE

Scoring Procedures:

Not Available

PRIMARY CITATION:

Wells, S., Tremblay, P. F., & Graham, K. (2013). Understanding men’s aggression in bars: development of the Beliefs and Attitudes toward Male Alcohol-Related Aggression (BAMARA) inventory. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37 Suppl 1, E260-270. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01912.x

Psychometric Score:

FORMATIVE RESEARCH

 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing

RELIABILITY

 Internal

 Test-retest

 Interrater

VALIDITY

 Content

 Face

 Criterion (gold-standard)

 Construct

Psychometric Scoring

HIGH
Total Score: 7.00/8 Points (HIGH) 

Citation Frequency

MEDIUM

KEY

 FULL POINTS
 PARTIAL POINTS
 NOT ASSESSED
 NOT APPLICABLE

For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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