Gender Role Conflict Scale for Adolescents (GRCS-A)

The Gender Role Conflict Scale for Adolescent (GRCS-A) is a 29-item scale that measures adolescent boys' thoughts and feelings about gender-role behaviors. The scale is derived from the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) for adults that was developed by O'Neil et al. (1986).


Restricted Affection Between Men (RAM)
1. Verbally expressing my love to another man is hard for me.
2. Affection with other men makes me tense.
3. Expressing my emotions to other men is risky.
4. Hugging other men is difficult for me.
5. I am sometimes hesitant to show my affection to men because of how others might judge me.
6. Being very personal with other men makes me feel anxious.
7. Men who are too friendly to me make me wonder about their sexual preference (men or women).

Restricted Emotionality (RE)
8. I have difficulty telling others I care about them.
9. Strong emotions are difficult for me to understand.
10. Expressing feelings makes me feel open to attack by other people.
11. Hard for me to talk about my feelings with others.
12. It’s hard for me to express my emotional needs to others.
13. When I am personally involved with others, I do not express my strong feelings.
14. I often have trouble finding words that describe how I am feeling.
15. I do not like to show my emotions to other people.
16. Telling others about my strong feelings is difficult to me.

Conflict Between Work, School, and Family (CWSF).
17. I feel torn between my hectic work or school schedule and caring for my health.
18. My career, job, or school effects the quality of my leisure or family life.
19. I judge other people’s value by their level of achievement and success.
20. Finding time to relax is difficult for me.
21. My need to work or study keeps me from my family or leisure more than I would like.
22. My work or school often disrupts other parts of my life (home, health, leisure).
23. Overwork and stress caused by the need to achieve on the job or in school effects or hurts my life.

Need for Success and Achievement (NSA)
24. Getting to the top of my class is important to me.
25. Making money is part of my idea of being a successful man.
26. Sometimes I define my personal value by my success at school.
27. I worry about failing and how it affects my doing well as a man.
28. Doing well all the time is important to me.
29. I strive to be more successful than others.

Response Options:
6-point Likert scale
Strongly agree - 1
Strongly disagree - 6



United States of America




Scoring Procedures:

Not Available


Blazina, C., Pisecco, S., & O’Neil, J. M. (2005). An adaptation of the Gender Role Conflict Scale for adolescents: Psychometric issues and correlates with psychological distress. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6(1), 39-45.

Psychometric Score:


 Qualitative Research

 Existing Literature/Theoretical Framework

 Field Expert Input

 Cognitive Interviews / Pilot Testing








 Criterion (gold-standard)


Psychometric Scoring

Total Score: 5.00/8 Points (MEDIUM) 

Citation Frequency




For more details, see Scoring Methodology

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