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Social Norms

Measuring Gender and Social Norms

RECOMMENDED  MEASURES FOR USE IN SURVEY RESEARCH

Social norms are the informal rules and expectations that govern behavior in groups or societies imparted via socialization across the lifespan. We can assess social norms by asking: 1) what the respondent thinks others in their given reference group are doing or not doing (descriptive norms) and 2) their perception of what others in their given reference group think they should or should not do (injunctive norms). Gender norms are the socially ascribed rules and expectations of individuals based on their biological sex or gender, and these can restrict choices when people wish to move beyond gendered expectations.

Social norms measures are less available than attitudinal measures, which capture an individual’s beliefs or views about behavior. However, measures of an individual’s attitudes and beliefs are not the same as social norms in that individual’s environment, though social norms do affect individual attitudes/beliefs. Measurement of social norms in gender, health, and development surveys is a growing field but requires more development and psychometric testing.

KEY RESOURCES

Relevant EMERGE Reports and Papers
Data on gender norms: can we find and use what is missing?
Women and girls’ health agency: Operationalizing the “Can-Act-Resist” of the women’s empowerment process
Proposing a Conceptual Framework to Address Social Norms That Influence Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health
A Roadmap for Measuring Agency and Social Norms in Women’s Economic Empowerment
The Learning Collaborative | Align Platform

Gender and Social Norms Modules
Social Norms and Gender Roles
Social Norms and Violence Against Women and Children
Social Norms and Family Planning
Social Norms and Women’s Employment and Leadership

EMERGE GENDER AND COVID-19 SURVEY QUESTIONS

Recommended Citation: Center on Gender Equity and Health (GEH). (2020). EMERGE COVID-19 and Gender Survey Questions.

GUIDANCE ON CONDUCTING SURVEYS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

BIG DATA AND GENDER IN THE AGE OF COVID-19 SERIES WITH DATA2X

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES ON COVID-19 AND WOMEN AND GIRLS’ EMPOWERMENT